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Miscarriages of Justice


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Read about -
Why justice isn't always just
How witness testimony can be unreliable

How people confess to things they didn't do
How hard it is to put things straight
Damage caused to individuals and families

Timely Warnings

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Reasonable Doubt

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Sometimes people are convicted because they made a confession about something they simply did not do.

Eyewitnesses often don't see or remember clearly enough to be really sure.

Convictions should not be made solely on one type of evidence.

In cases of miscarriage of justice, other things may be 'made to fit' into a scenario which other people come to believe is what happened.

The more we understand of possible reasons, the less it should actually happen.

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If you know someone who is in prison, try to get some support for yourself too



Factors or Causes

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False Confessions

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Traditions to Treasure

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Books and Resources

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Visit for an article on the unreliability of evidence,
by Zakaria Erzinclioglu - Science and the law: A cause for concern

For articles about disclosure of evidence and other issues visit Innocent
Disclosure, Problems/Help Miscarriages of Justice, Prisoners who maintain their innocence, Forensic science, In prison

Books listed by Innocent are at where downloads are available for some out-of-print books

Visit the Links page at INUK - The Innocence Network UK -
Campaigning/Victim-Support Groups; Key Criminal Justice System Agencies;
Forensics/Expert Witnesses; Legal Education/Pro Bono Organisations;
Media; Other Free-Access Legal Resources

UAI United Against Injustice
National Federation of Miscarriage of Justice Campaign and Support Organisations

Did you sign something?
Did you have a lawyer?
Did people listen to you?
Did they try to understand you?


Were you confused when questioned?
Did you say anything that wasn't right?
Did they say your fingerprint matched?
Were you where people said you were?

Ostracism can cause a real Pain!

Is it really worth it?
Whether it gets called ostracism, rejection, dissing or whatever, the effects of silent treatment can be hard to take.

Click for 'Why rejection hurts: a common neural alarm system for physical and social pain' by Naomi Eisenberger and Matthew Lieberman

Ostracism: The Cruel Power of Silence, an All in the Mind radio interview

Kipling Williams has researched ostracism and its effects, and you can search on Google or any search engine for details on his work. Some books he has authored are available from Amazon:

'The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, and Bullying' by Kipling D. Williams, Joseph P. Forgas, William Von Hippel

'Ostracism: The Power of Silence' by Kipling D. Williams

Also see: 'Don't Take It Personally: The Art of Dealing with Rejection' by Elayne Savage

Amazon often have second-hand books which are much cheaper!
You can read up about books and authors without having to buy anything

Scapegoating and ostracism have similarities: Someone or some people can get blamed or ignored
- as if they did something wrong, or there's something different about them

Actually it can happen to anyone, and for no particular reason
It can be quite hard to change the pattern. Get some support if you can, and read up on it for yourself